Since schools have been closed I have been working with my young children while simultaneously working on high school experiential curriculum. My child is required to sit at his computer much of the day to work on his school assignments, so to break up the monotony, I have been adding experiential learning activities to the day. Everyday we do a hands-on, subject-integrated, activity that follows a theme for the week. I have been adding those experiences and schedules here to inspire other parents and teachers in the same situation. I have also been adding modification ideas, particularly for high school students. Click on April for Part 1.
All About Pollinators Experiential Learning Activity Schedule
This is an awesome time of year to study pollinators in my neck of the woods. It's spring in the northern United States. Some pollinators are in the middle of lengthy migrations or are just arriving. Spring flowers are blooming. On top of that, we're all feeling really cooped up by this point and are needing some hands-on learning activities to keep us going. My kids do, anyway, and so do I, frankly.
The great thing about this week's schedule is that every activity can be done from home or outdoors. Even in urban areas. Hopefully you can step into a courtyard or take stroll down the block. The only activity this week that helps to have access to some wildlife is the citizen science experience. I'll offer some modifications below. The others can be done indoors, although, I highly recommend trying to take them outside if that is an option. Good luck!
Monday: Pollinator Simulation
I chose honeybees as the pollinator for this experience with my own young children. They are three and six. I also planned the simulation. We started by observing the apple trees in our yard. They are just starting to flower so my kids were able to observe some of the reproductive parts of a plant such as the stamen and stigma. I made flower models for three separate apple trees, which is the situation on our block. My kids made bees out of cotton swabs and learned how bees cross-pollinate apple trees by carrying pollen from anther to stigma. I used the colorful sugar from Fun Dip as my pollen.
Modifications: Older students can turn this into a PBL experience by choosing a pollinator of interest, researching that pollinator, and creating their own interactive simulation on the mechanism of pollination by the pollinator that they choose to study. They could create a stop-motion animation, make a moving model, or even design and build a physical interactive simulation like I did for my own children. Check out my project-based learning tool kit to guide learners through this process.
Tuesday: Citizen Science
There are so many interesting citizen science projects out there that specifically focus on pollinators. Each citizen science project can be catered to work for a variety of ages and skill levels. My kids and I participated in Bumble Bee Watch. I wasn't sure if my kids would like it, thinking they may be do young to understand it. But my son loved the idea that his findings were sent to and used by real scientists. My daughter loved the process of finding bumble bees in nature and identifying them on the citizen science project page.
Check out iNaturalist for a variety of options. What citizen science project you do will depend on your geographical location, your access to natural areas, and time of year. For more citizen science project ideas head to my citizen science blog post.
Modifications: Consider having older students create their own citizen science projects on a pollinator of their choice. iNaturalist makes this possible. If this is not an option, consider turning citizen science into a project-based learning experience using the tool kit mentioned above. Another option is conduct experiments on pollinator behavior using my open inquiry tool kit.
Wednesday: Design a Pollinator Garden
My children and I have wanted to make a small butterfly garden on our boulevard. My son and I researched a variety of native plants that provide food and shelter for native butterflies. We spent a lot time on the University of Minnesota website perusing flowers. He chose plants that he liked and drew out a map/plan for flower placement in our blvd. He worked on research skills, reading, writing, science, and more. We ended up building this garden, but you do not have to for this to be a worth while experience. If you do not have access to a plot of land consider looking into urban gardening. Try pots and vertical gardens if you have acces to a porch or balcony.
Modifications: Turn this into a maker experience for older students. There are so many benefits to incorporating design thinking into high school curriculum. I am working on creating a maker PBL resource on this very idea and will post it here soon. In the meantime, have older students do the same project as my son. They can choose a pollinator to study, research plants that support the safety, survival, and reproduction of their chosen pollinator, and design a garden. Older students can/should consider plant placement, needed distance between plants, the amount of sunlight required, height potential for plants, and more. Check out my Pollinator Garden Design maker/pbl resource.
Thursday: Pollinator Shelter
This turned out to be a much more interesting activity than I anticipated. Last year, my son and I made a bat house. He enjoyed that so much that I thought he might also like to make one of these trendy bee "hotels" that I'm seeing all over Pinterest. As someone with a background in wildlife biology, however, I know the importance of building wildlife shelters that are safe for their residents.
After my son and I did a little research, we discovered that many of these bee hotels are not safe for bees. In fact, many of them kill bees if they are not made correctly and if they are not continuously maintained. We decided to modify a cheap, not very safe bee hotel that I got from a gardening center not long ago. We researched safe bee hotels and how to care for them. We modified the bee hotel that we already have and created a "how to take care of a bee house" guide sheet. We posted our bee hotel and care sheet on our blvd for passerby's to observe and learn from.
Modifcaitons: I have a maker PBL project on this exact experience that is geared toward high school students - Build a Wildlife Shelter. Another great option is doing community action projects. These projects are a cool mix between problem-based learning and service learning. In our research on bees we came across a pretty serious problem. Our final product, in a sense, was the result of a community action project. We identified a problem and worked toward solving the problem. Check out my community action project tool kit.
In the picture below my daughter is inserting paper straws into the tubes so that they can be removed and swapped out occassionally for cleaner straws. This reduces the chance of pathogens taking over the shelter, and causing potential harm to the bees. I've read that bamboo, which are the small tubes in this store bought bee house, are especially susceptible to problems.
Wind: Wind Pollinator STEM
This was a really fun one! I have my high school students do a cool STEM challenge on this topic to learn about adaptations. I attempted to have my own children to the same thing, but it turned into a more age appropriate activity, which was designing their own plants. My kids love to do anything that involves grabbing whatever crafting materials are around and making something out of it all. They made their own plants out of recyclables and crafting materials, each with a stamen and stigma to show the parts necessary for cross-pollination.
Modifications: My older students do the same thing, create plant models, that cross-pollinate using wind (anemophily). They design models, make a prototype, test their prototypes, make adjustments, etc. until they have a final product that effectively cross-pollinates using wind. Check out my resource - STEM Challenge: Wind Pollinator Adaptations. This resource is alined with NGSS and focuses on the concept of beneficial hertiable traits, in this case, as they pertain to plants that pollinate with wind.
Plant Science Experiential Learning Activity Schedule
Spring is such an awesome time to bring plants into any curriculum, and it is one of those topics that is experiential by nature. There are so many ways to get involved in learning when it comes to plants. Students could start and maintain a community garden, grow plants and sell them to raise funds for habitat protection, design a product that solves a gardening problem (design thinking projects), design and conduct experiments on any number of plant topics, develop a comprehensive plan to solve a local invasive plant species problem, and the list goes on.
Each of these experiences engages learners in the content, and helps them better understand and absorb the concepts because they are actively involved. These examples are all learning experiences that my high school students have undertaken, as have my own children, 3 and 5, with modifications. For the past few weeks we have been growing our own plants from seed, experimenting, baking, creating, writing, and more, all as they relate to plants. Check out the details of each activity below, try some out for yourself, and easily adapt them to a variety of ages and skill levels. Good luck!
Monday: Water Transport Demonstration
You've probably seen or tried the classic celery demo, where you place the celery in food-colored water, and observe as the celery leaves slowly take on the color of the water. The purpose of this activity is to demonstrate water transport from the stem to the leaves via xylem.
I tried this activity with my own children, but we used a variety of plants - celery, kale, a tree branch, asparagus, and a branch from a bush in our yard - which we then observed and recorded the similarities and differences between them. Try this with whatever plants you have on hand. Practice using senses to make observations. Pull out your magnifying glasses. Pair the experience by making a model of xylem and phloem using straws, toothpicks, toilet paper roles, etc. if you wish.
Modifications: This is a great opportunity for older students to conduct open-inquiry investigations. They can develop their own questions based on their observations, and design and conduct their own experiments. Click here for a self-directed scientific inquiry tool kit (printable and Google Classroom digital version included).
Tuesday: Green Sun Butter Cookies
Chlorophyll is an important plant feature. It's vital for photosynthesis. Chlorophyll (chlorogenic acid) uses light to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and gluclose. My young children and I baked sun butter cookies, which are a beautiful golden brown color on the surface and green on the inside. What happened? Sunflower seeds contain chlorophyll, so when chlorogenic acid reacts with baking soda in the baking process, the green pigment of the chlorophyll emerges. For my own young children, this activity was mostly done in fun. But it is also a good way to introduce chlorophyll and it's function in a plant.
Click here for the recipe that we used.
Modifcations: Older students could take this a step further by experimenting with different ingredients. Chlorophyll isn't the only plant pigment. Others include carotenoids, anthocyanins, anthoxanthins, and betalins. Carrots, red beans, cauliflower, beets, sweet potatoes, and eggplants all have pigments in them.
Self-directed inquiry experiments are always a great option when it comes to science topics. Look for my tool kit link above. But there are many directions older students could take this concept, such as project-based learning. An example is developing unique recipes that result in fun science lessons for kids. The student could then compile those recipes onto a blog or webiste and share the link with parents and teachers. This ONE example of project-based learning. The options are endless when you have the right guiding materials for self-directed PBL. Check out my self-directed project-based learning tool kit here (printable and digital options).
Wednesday: Grow and Experiment
We sprouted dry pinto beans from the grocery store using a plastic bag and a wet paper towel (instructions). But we didnt' stop there. Once the seeds sprouted, we planted the seeds, and added a couple of experiments to the mix to hammer in plant parts and requirements for growth. One of our experiments was on different types of soil and their affect on plant growth rates. The other experiment was similar, but we changed the amount of water added to the plants vs. the types of soil. This was a good opportunity to talk about the nature of science and experimental design.
Modifications: Because my kids are so young, I setup and directed their experiments. My kids made predictions, observations, practiced taking measurments and graphing, and more. But older students could self-direct these experiences and elaborate significantly, focusing on skill and age appropriate content. For an environmental science class, for example, they might test the growth or success rates of plants using different types of fertilizers. They could then connect their results to a larger problem-based learning or community action project on water pollution.
My experiential water pollution bundle includes a scientific inquiry and problem-based learning activity on fertilizers, as well as a community action project. Each resource in this bundle can be purchased independently as well.
Thursday: Phototropism Maze
This is such a cool experience to observe directional growth of a plant toward light; otherwise known as phototropism. There are so many ways to see this phenomenon first hand, but one way is to create a maze in a box and block out all light except for one small opening at the top of the maze. Check out our pictures below. The point is to see if the plant will change direction and grow toward the light. You could do this using a cardboard box. My children and I used a cardboard doll house that we made a few weeks ago. We are still waiting for the results. I'll post on the results either when the plant reaches the roof or when it dies! Cross your fingers.
Modifications: High school students could easily turn this concept into self-directed inquiry experiments. Example investigations include how light intensity affects the rate of directional growth, the differences in phototropism rates of different plant species, the role that different parts of the plant play in phototropism, and so on. Check out my latest scientific open inquiry resource that guides students through self-directed experimentation ON the topic of phototropism.
Plants are such a integral part of the balance of nature. They are food for a variety of organisms, they provide essential natural services, and shelter. Plant communities provide habitat, which I wanted my children to see first hand. Not only that, I also wanted them to pay close attention to the dynamics and activities of nature taking place in a seemingly quiet and barren landscape. I took them to cattail marsh. We sat quietly and observed the habitat before us. We identified a variety organisms using this habitat for food, shelter, mating, and more. We then went home and made a moving model of the habitat that we visited.
Modifications: This exact experience could be done by older students. They can be given a lot more independence and autonomy, but the general idea is the same. Check out my project-based learning experience on habitats.
We currently find ourselves in a very unique situation. Never before have we been required as a society to operate entirely by computer. Of course being confined to the home is not ideal for any experiential educator, but we work with what we have. One silver-lining? The opportunity to work on 21st-century skills such as adapting and problem-solving.
As a reminder, experiential learning is doing; learning through experience. The activities are hands-on, personalized, relevant and applicable to real-life, and self-directed (click on "experiential learning" in the archives for more details). That is the key during quarantining; "student-directed". Many parents are trying to simultaneously hold down their jobs and home educate their children. What they need is for their children to be able to work independently with a little guidance here and there.
Project-based learning, inquiry, problem-based learning, and STEM all promote experiential thinking, and these are the resources I provide. I have been in the process of converting many of my resources to digital. I provide a printable and digital option for each resource. The digital option is the same as the printable, but it can be assigned, personalized (by students), and shared via Google Classroom. The resources listed below each include a digital option.
High School Experiential Learning Resources to Use with Google Apps
To fast track to all of my digital resource, click here. If you are looking for something in particular, peruse the listings below. Click on the title to get to the resources. I convert more resources to digital each day, so check back often. Scroll to the bottom for free resources.
The following tool kits provide all of the templates necessary for an unlimited number of self-directed learning experiences. Each includes printable and a Google Classroom version.
Project-Based Learning Tool Kit
Maker Project Tool Kit
Problem-Based Learning Tool Kit
Scientific Open Inquiry Tool Kit
Tool Kit Bundle
These PBL resources focus on a specific theme. The templates included help guide students through the project design process and project execution independently. For open-ended projects rather than those that already have a topic in place, check out the PBL tool kit mentioned above.
Plan a Trip Around the World
I am technically a life science and environmental science teacher, so a lot of my resources are about science. So, although a good chunk of my resources would be considered in the sciences, the following are the only two in the sciences that are currently available for use with Google Apps. I will continue to convert more over the next few weeks.
Inquiry Bingo: Earth Day
Climate Drivers Inquiry Activity
The first three freebies are great supplemental activities that go well with self-directed project-based learning, especially helpful for those that are new to the process. The last one, College Exploration, goes well with a couple of my other college and career readiness, particularly Career Exploration, which is also Google Apps compatible.
Project Topic Brainstorming Activity
Start a Project: PBL Cheat Sheet
College Exploration Activity
I hope you find some of these resources useful during this crazy time! As always, if you have any questions about experiential learning in ANY learning environment, including home/remote, reach out at experientiallearningdepot.com
Follow Experiential Learning Depot on Pinterest and Instagram for more on experiential education
Experiential Learning Activity Schedules for all Ages and Skill Levels
Welcome to distance learning, everyone! School closures across the globe have forced educators into converting their entire teaching portfolio to an online platform. Parents are trying to work from home and homeschool their kids at the same time; no easy feat.
We're all finding our way, and that's great, but sometimes it's nice to have a schedule or plan laid out for you. I have been an experiential high school educator for 12 years, and a home educator to two small children for 3 years. I have had a little of both worlds - home and school, young and old, traditional education and progressive. I have a lot of ideas in my tool belt, and want to share them with you all to attempt to make this transition run as smoothly as possible.
I will be doing at least one experiential learning activity with my children each day. They will stick to a theme for the week. I will post that schedule right here as a I go. This is simply to give you ideas and a lending hand as we continue to manage this school closure/home learning situation. All of these schedules can continue to be used in the home, in the classroom, and out in the world long after this pandemic is behind us.
Interest-Led Mad Science for All Ages
My son has been interested in science for a long time, and recently received a starter/kids chemistry set for his birthday. All he wants to do now is mix colors and random kitchen ingredients and make things "explode". So I decided to base this week's home experiential learning activities on interest-led science experiments and activities.
There are many elements of experiential learning that make it what it is, one of which is personalization. I sat with my children and asked them a couple of simple questions and made a list of their answers - "what do you like?" and "what do you wonder?" This weeks schedule of "mad science" was entirely inspired by my children's answers to these two simple questions. Doing this makes learning exciting, relevant, personal, and it promotes intrinsic motivation to learn.
My young children basically played. They understood the basic concepts behind each activity, but it was mostly just fun, exciting, and inspired a passion for science. High school students can go about this the same way but add student-directed learning experiences to go along with their interests such as designing and conducting their own experiments around the questions that they came up with, or complete student-directed projects about their interests related to "mad science". Check out my open-inquiry and project-based learning tool kits here.
The chemistry kit came with some science experiment ideas, and dancing noodles was one of them. You just add snippets of cooked spaghetti to a beaker. Add baking soda and vinegar. This is an interesting variation of your classic "volcano". My kids know at this point what happens when you combine baking soda with vinegar. So I asked them to make predictions about what might happen to the noodles if placed at the center of the reaction. My kindergartener could predict that the bubbles would cause movement.
We make hard candy every year around the winter holidays. It's always fun and is a great way to talk about evaporation. This is a fun one to do with my students, too, to see what happens if you don't give it enough time to evaporate or give it too much time. We also tried gummy candy this time. We use this hard candy recipe.
DIY Bouncy Balls
This was a fun way to make "toys", which was one of my children's interests, and to introduce polymers to older kids. I used this recipe.
Glow in the Dark "Potions"
This was a fun way to satisfy my kids interest in "potions" while providing a hands-on way to learn about density. I got ingredient ideas from this website, but didn't have my kids follow a recipe. They made observations and predictions and experimented with the various liquids placed in front of them.
My daughter wondered how dress became pink. So we looked into dye's and decided to concoct our own out of plant materials. We used avocado, beets, cabbage, onion skin and coffee grinds to dye white socks. We investigated the parts of the plants that make the color and researched how to keep the color once it's been washed.
Experiential Distance Learning Schedule: Climate Science
This week, my children and I focused on climate and how it works. I do a similar "schedule" with my high school students with added scientific open-inquiry experiments, maker projects, etc. The high school content is more difficult and the expectations are higher. Head to Experiential Learning Depot on TPT to peruse high school climate science resources. I'll be adding an inquiry resource on climate drivers this week. Stay-tuned for that. I'm working on creating an experiential learning course on the science of climate change, so check back often for new climate resources.
Update: It's here! My climate drivers inquiry-based learning activity for high school students. Printable and Google Classroom versions.
This was an interesting week to start this theme because in Minnesota we are going through a transition of seasons; winter to spring. It's still pretty chilly here right now, so some solar experiments required a little creativity, but we made it work. Check out our week and try it out with your own children or students!
Monday: DIY Weather Instruments
We made a radiometer, rain gauge, and weather vane. Watch this video for a detailed explanation. With my young kids, I used the radiometer to explain that the sun is a powerful source of energy. That's it. A weather vane is a great way to introduce the significance of wind when it comes to climate. A weather vane shows the direction that the wind is coming from, which can help make predictions about imminent weather conditions.
We made these weather instruments the first day of the week because we wanted to record the weather each day. At the end of the week we graphed our daily records and calculated average precipitation and air temperature. This started dialogue about the difference between weather and climate. The weather will be rainy and cool tomorrow (short-term) whereas the weather this week was typical of Minnesota climate in April (long-term).
Modifications: How climate works is a lot more complicated than what a radiometer or weather vane can tell you. I used these instruments to introduce the basic concepts of weather and climate to a 3 and 5-year-old. But high schoolers could grasp more advanced climate concepts such as how the coriolis effect, hadley cells, ferrel and polar cells, etc. influence atmospheric circulation. High school students can still make weather instruments, but should use it as an introduction or supplement to a more advanced activity on climate and the atmosphere. Check out my atmospheric circulation maker-stations on TPT.
Tuesday: Weather Vs. Climate Art Activity
Part of experiential learning is making it personal by identifying student interests and giving the experience personal meaning. My children both love to paint, so I had them use their love of art to demonstrate their understanding of the difference between weather and climate. They both painted a picture of each season and describe the difference between the weather tomorrow, for example, and Minnesota climate.
Modifications: Another important component of experiential learning is that it is self-directed, allowing students choice in process and outcome. I do a lot of self-directed project-based learning with my high school students, and they choose how to demonstrate learning. Allow your older students to CHOOSE how they will demonstrate their understanding of weather vs. climate. Check out my PBL task cards, a collection of end product options. These can be used for any learning experience, not just this one.
Wednesday: Energy Experiments
The Earth's surface is what heats the planet, so different surface materials heat the Earth in different ways - some absorb radiant energy and some reflect it. Albedo is the amount of energy that is reflected. I set up a lab for my kids to test albedo of different surfaces. The purpose was to see which surfaces reflect solar energy and which ones absorb it. My children chose the surface materials, made predictions, did the experiment, and discussed their results. My young kids could grasp that different materials have different temperatures. They also seemed to understand that the sun is responsible for the heat. There were a lot of valuable pieces to this experience other than the science. My kids practiced writing, addition and subtraction, reading a thermometer, problem-solving, writing, graphing, and more.
We then made our own solar ovens using Pringles jars (so many tutorials online), one wrapped in black paper, and the other in red. My son predicted that the marshmallow in the black container would cook faster because of the albedo experiment. My daughter said the red would cook faster "because the marshmallows will taste good". She's three ;)
Modifications: Solar energy is the foundation of climate science. It drives the whole system. The energy budget is a balance between the amount of incoming solar energy to Earth and outgoing energy out into space. If that budget is off, climate shifts. Older students can 1) ask their own questions and design their own experiments in relation to the energy budget, and 2) understand the implications that surface materials have on climate in real-life. Pavement, for example, would absorb more solar energy than would a marsh. How we manipulate the Earth's surface will impact the global climate.
Check out my energy budget unit bundle, which includes an open-inquiry experiment.
Thursday: Ocean Circulation Demo
This was by far my children's' favorite activity this week because they love anything that involves water. A LEGO water park was the byproduct of my thermohaline circulation demo. The ocean plays a large role in the global climate. Salinity and water temperature influence ocean circulation because salty, cold water is denser than fresh, warm water. This demo shows how the density differences put water into motion. This circulating water moves heat around the globe, moderating coastal temperatures. My kids understood that the blue water had salt in it. They also understood that it sank because it was "heavier" than the water that did not have salt in it. They loved to watch the demonstration and it inspired a lot of questions, which is always my end goal!
Modifications: My own children did not understand the bigger picture or how this concept applies to the ocean and climate, and I wouldn't expect them to. They are 3 and 5. But I would expect that high schoolers could grasp these concepts. Have students watch this demo play out in full and then move on to my ocean and climate inquiry stations resource.
Friday: Data Analysis
We did several activities this week that required recording data and figuring out what it all means. We analyzed our weather data that we recorded each day, putting the numbers into graphs and learning how to read them. We also put the results of our albedo and solar oven experiments into graphs. I set the graphs up for them, and had my kindergartener put his numbers into it, with my guidance. They were both able to read the graphs to a certain degree to draw conclusions. For example, they could see from the graph that we had the most precipitation on Monday, or that the dark surface materials were the warmest.
Modifications: As I said above, your students could do climate experiments as well, but should make their own observations, ask their own questions, and design their own experiments. For unlimited self-directed experimentation, check out my scientific inquiry tool kit (includes a printable and Google Classroom Distance Learning Option). Your older students should also design their own method of collecting data and create their own graphs entirely.
Weekly Experiential Learning Schedule: Plan a Trip
I have been a high school project-based educator for 12 years. Trip planning projects (hypothetical) are always a favorite. It is a student-directed, interest-based, multi-disciplinary learning experience, that applies to real-life and offers opportunities to gain important life skills, such as budgeting. I have several free high school trip planning activities in my TpT store and a "Plan a Trip Around the World" student-directed PBL resource in my store for purchase (printable and Google Classroom option).
My family and I were supposed to head to the Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Savannah, and Charleston in June. We have to postpone it due to coronavirus, but fully intend on visiting at some point. So I decided that this week's experiential learning theme would be "planning" that trip. We ended up focusing most of our attention on Charleston. If you have young kids, help them choose a destination and do the activities highlighted here. If you have older children, give them the self-directed learning resources and let them go for it. Check out what we did!
Monday: Travel Distance and Cost
The original plan for this trip to the southeast was to fly into Nashville and fly out of Charleston. Turns out that it is a lot of extra driving to fly into Nashville, and my kids struggle with driving. So, their task was to weigh the costs and benefits of different travel scenarios; to choose a fly-in and fly-out scenario that's cost-effective BUT requires the LEAST amount of total driving time. For this activity to be successful for such young kids, I had to have the scenarios ready. Before we started the activity I figured out the total number of hours on the road per scenario as well estimated flight costs. My children, then, determined which was the best case scenario by comparing prices and driving hours. This was a good way for my kindergartener to practice <=>, adding and subtracting, and decision-making.
Modifications: High school students can do the same activity. A high schooler, however, would research their own flight costs, determine possible routes on their own, and consider other variables. For example, if their goal is budget travel, they may suggest not flying at all, and take a road trip instead (in order to save money on flight and on site transportation costs). Then they would look at the cost of gas to see if that route is cost-effective and time efficient. The resources in my store (free and paid) guide this experience.
Tuesday: Lodging and Graphing
This was my children's favorite part of this week. Even though we will be traveling to the Smokies, Asheville, Charleston and Savannah, I decided that we would focus on one destination, Charleston, because my children are 5 and 3. Be realistic! I asked each of them to tell me ONE hotel feature that mattered to them. My son said "pool", my daughter said "hot pool", and I said "cost", "good reviews", and "good location". I hand-sketched a graph (see photo), hopped on Tripadvisor with the kids to scope out hotels, and the kids colored in the graph.
This activity was a great way for my kids to practice organization, decision-making, math skills, and reading graphs. I helped them understand the benefit of organizing information onto a graph. My daughter was so excited by this activity that she presented it to her dad at the end of the day. She is 3 years old.
Modifications: High schoolers, again, could do the same activity, but include more "must-haves". High schoolers can, and should, consider things like whether there is free breakfast, proximity to learning activities, if hotel parking is free, room availability, expense during travel season vs. the off season, how many travelers there will be and how many rooms will be required. Students could also compare lodging options such as Airbnb/VRBO, camping, hostels, motels/hotels, etc.
Wednesday: Plan Itinerary
My kids loved this. We referenced a variety of resources from friends that have visited or lived in Charleston, to Tripadvisor, to travel blogs, and travel guides. They researched what to do in Charleston (looked at pictures and listened to me read background info about each activity) , chose their favorites, and put together an itinerary by drawing photos and writing descriptions of each thing they wanted to do while in Charleston.
Modifications: My young children chose a few places to visit in order to learn a little history and practice drawing and writing. This isn't a real plan. High school students should approach this activity as if they will actually be taking this trip. They should have a solid itinerary scheduled out. They will have to look at activity costs, location, transportation options, etc.
Thursday: History and Culture
This activity isn't technically part of trip planning. It's just to understand the history and culture of the destination. I read "Oh, Charleston!" to my kids to teach them about the history of ragtime music and the Charleston song and dance. My kids learned how to to the dance. Sort of. My daughter likes to cook, so we made an authentic Charleson meal, which included Lady Baltimore cake (named after a book, not the city of its origin), barbecue (which, btw, is not an outdoor meal on the grill, northerners), and cornbread.
Note: The cooking part of this week's activities extended into the weekend. We were not able to put together a full meal in an afternoon.
Modifications: My high school students have done a similar thing. I work at a school that has a travel program, so sometimes these trips actually happen. We always study the history and culture of the place before we go on any school trip. Because it's project-based learning with my students, they are required to produce an innovative final product to demonstrate learning and share their new skills and knowledge with a public and relevant audience. So they might make a meal with authentic dishes from their destination and then format those recipes into a cookbook, host a dinner party, or produce video tutorials to add to Youtube. So many options!
Friday: Demonstrate Learning
At this point I had my kids compile everything they learned from the week into a "trip planner". I I put together a blank book with blank construction. They compiled their plans into the book, glued in photos, wrote captions, etc.
Modifications: There are so many interesting ways for kids to demonstrate learning that go beyond poster boards. My students create trip proposals and present their idea to the school board for approval. Hypothetical trip plans have been compiled into brochures, blog posts, websites, and more. Check my post on final product ideas: 100 End Product Ideas to Demonstrate Learning.
Experiential Learning Activity Schedule: Simple Machines
We focused on simple machines our first week. We did this because my oldest child loves building, particularly with LEGOS. This week of activities on engineering included math, science, reading, writing, technology, art, and more. Look below for details and photos of our experiences.
Tuesday: Maker Project
Maker projects start by identifying everyday problems, frustrations, or obstacles and designing a solution to that problem. My children wanted LEGO cleanup to be faster, so we each designed our own product that would solve that problem. Kids their age require a significant degree of structure and guidance. This kind of project promotes problem-solving, critical thinking, collaboration, creativity, and more.
Modifications: This exact project could be done by high school students, they just require less hand-holding. They identify problems, design solutions, build their products, test their products, make changes, try again, and so on until they have a functional solution to their defined problem. I have a Maker Project Tool Kit geared toward high school students in my TPT store, and recently added a digital version to be used with Google Apps.
Wednesday: LEGO Math
I love this one. It has little to do with machines, but but children's love for LEGOS and building is really what inspired this week's theme. I set out a white board and had my children do numbers-related activities using LEGOS. My daughter did some color matching and categorizing by size, shape, etc. My kindergartener did adding, subtracting, less than/more than, etc.
Modifications: Older students could do fractions, algebra, angles, etc.
Thursday: Stop-Motion Animation Using Simple Machines
I love this one because it combines so many concepts and skills in one activity. The idea is to make a moving stop-motion set using LEGOS and simple machines. My child created a storyboard, wrote the story, drew the illustrations, created the set using his LEGO pieces, and created a stop-motion animation. I was by his side to answer and ask questions throughout the process.
Modifications: My child's final product was what you would expect of a five-year-old and where they are at developmentally. I could easily assign the same project to a high school student, but the expectations would obviously be different. I would expect narration and sound in their final product. I would ask that their stories be more elaborate with all of the essential parts of a story, plot twists, character development, etc. They can also be given more independence than a 5-year-old. As for younger students, my toddler enjoyed observing and assisting.
Friday: Marshmallow STEM Challenge
The challenge was to get a marshmallow from the floor into a bucket using only simple machines to get it there. STEM challenges encourage mistakes, which helps kids build so many skills. You can see in the video that it didn't work the first time...or the second, third, or fourth time. When their efforts aren't successful, I ask them what they believe to be the problem and how they might fix it. They'd try something new or make an adjustment, and try it again. We went on like this until they accomplished their goal; getting the marshmallow into the bucket using simple machines.
Modifications: My toddler loved this activity. She isn't old enough to truly wrap her mind around simple machines, but her tagging along, and even observing, allowed her to work on gross motor-skills, problem-solving, teamwork, and more. Older kids could do the exact same challenge, but work more independently. You could add to the challenge by asking that they combine at least three simple machines, and make the goal more challenging, such as getting the marshmallow from the floor to the table or up a staircase.
I have a STEM challenge rubric in my store that is included in a self-directed learning rubric bundle for high school students. Check that out for unlimited STEM Challenge assessments.
Outdoor Experiential Learning Activity Schedule
Monday: Animal Inquiry and Mini-Photography Project
My kids learned about types of animals such as amphibians, mammals, birds, etc. by doing an inquiry project. They learned the basics from National Geographic Kids. Then I set them up with photos of different types of animals. Their challenge was to place each photo under the animal category that they believe fits the animal's description. Inquiry requires questions, questions, and more questions - from the students AND the instructor. You don't tell students the answer. You ask them questions that lead them toward making their own discoveries. For example, my child placed dolphins under the "fish" category for obvious reasons. Rather than tell him that a dolphin is a mammal, I asked him why he believes it's a fish, I asked him what might be different about the dolphin than a clown fish, and so on. He was able to identify that the dolphin didn't have gills, that they don't lay eggs, etc.
The second part of this activity was to head outside and take photos of the different animals types in their natural habitats and create a gallery.
Modifications: I do the same activity with my high school students, but rather than categorize animal types, they group organisms photos by relationships. They create cladograms with the photos provided. As for the photography project, I have a high school version of this, where students do a photography scavenger hunt outdoors of higher level ecology concepts such as sexual dimorphism, symbiotic relationships, k-species, etc. Check out this FREE resource.
My son's teacher asked parents specifically to focus on storytelling. This is a great way to work on reading comprehension and writing while allowing kids to get creative and learn in an interesting and fun way. All I did was have my children piggyback off the inquiry activity from the day before. They each wrote a storyboard/comic that included at least one character from each animal type. My 5-yr-old did the illustrations and the writing, and my 3-year-old helped him write the plotline.
Modifications: Older students could do the exact same project, but their expectations would be modified. You could ask that they write a poetry book, a children's book, a magazine, etc. The options are limitless. They could make physical books, but I really like FlipSnack because they can share their final product link with friends and family and/or an authentic audience. They could also create animations using a variety of free online programs.
Wednesday: Numbers in Nature
There are a lot of really cool ways to incorporate numbers in nature. We did a few activities that were age and skill level appropriate, one of which was to head outside for a nature walk and fill a bucket with nature items such as pine cones, leaves, etc. Then my kids counted the points on the leaves, measured the length of sticks, identified different geometrical shapes, etc.
I also had my children read a book called "Lifetime" by Lola M. Schaefer. I had my five-year-old create his own version by numbering pages 1-10 and drawing that number of ONE animal type on each page. For example, page 2 had two dolphin drawings, page 3 had three spider drawings, etc.
Modifications: I used to do a similar numbers in nature scavenger hunt activity with my older students, but they were out to test the validity of Fibonacci's numbers. The claim is that Fibonacci's numbers (0,1,1,2,3,5,8,13....etc.) are found in nature, so they would count the number of petals on flowers, points on leaves, rings on tree stumps, etc. Another option is measure the angles of nature items.
Thursday: Citizen Science
I'm a huge fan of citizen science. It's an awesome way to learn science concepts while giving learners a sense of accomplishment and importance. Citizen science projects use data that citizens collect and report, such as loon sightings. We went for a walk around a local lake and tried to spot loons through sight and sound. We were able to spot one. We can then head to the Common Loon Citizen Science Project to report our location. We also created a backyard bird life list, filled our bird feeders, and count birds as we see them.
Modifications: Some great citizen science projects can be found on iNaturalist, for all ages. That is my favorite citizen science site. Older students can add their own inquiry science experiments to their citizen science projects. Click here for an open-inquiry science tool kit. Older students can also create their own citizen science projects through several sites. iNaturalist is one of those. You can also head to my archives, click on "outdoor learning" and head to my post of favorite citizen science projects.
Friday: Make Your Own Compass and Get Lost!
We made our own compass by cutting a small disc from a wine cork, drawing N/S/E/W on the the cork, rubbing a sewing needle against a magnet, sliding the needle through cork parallel with N/S, dropping the contraption in a bowl of water, and letting it guide us! I literally walked 8-10 blocks directly south and my children followed their homemade compass north to get home. I kept it simple to start.
Modifications: Older students could really get creative with this. They could create a backyard or local park scavenger hunt for younger siblings. They would hide "treasures" around the yard or park, create a treasure map of the area, and have younger students use the compass to find the hidden treasures.
In the wake of the coronavirus pandemic, educators and parents are scrambling to find distance learning resources that are easy-to-implement, free, and are more or less student-directed, especially when it comes to teens. Of course there are the obvious online tools such as Khan Academy, but that can get a bit dull really quickly. If you want to mix things up, check out my collection of go-to websites for secondary students.
My background is in 9-12 life science, particularly ecology, wildlife, and conservation. I will start by adding my favorite teen life-science websites. Many of these organizations have really stepped up and are offering free memberships as long as schools are closed.
I will continue to add more online learning resources daily or as they come up. If you know of distance learning websites for middle and high school students that you'd like to share, please do so in the comments. I'd love to get a lengthy catalog going. Note: This is not a place to sell or promote your products. If you comment with a personal product it will be deleted. FREE online learning websites for teens only. Thank you!
Distance Learning: Free Educational Websites for Teens
Distance Learning: Free Life Science Websites for Teens
1) Smithsonian Learning Lab: An incredible collection of distance learning lessons and resources. https://learninglab.si.edu/distancelearning and https://www.si.edu/learn-explore
2) Cincinnati Zoo: Home Safari Facebook Live animal show and activity https://www.facebook.com/events/2996522950406952/
3) San Diego Zoo: Virtual tours and live webcams
4) Dallas Zoo: Behind the scenes and educational videos
Look for #bringthezootoyou on Instagram and Twitter
5) Shedd Aquarium: behind the scenes videos of animal care
Follow @shedd_aquarium on social media.
6) Oregon Zoo: Behind the scenes videos on social media
7) Monterey Bay Aquarium: Live webcams
8)Explore Live Webcams: webcams on animals in the wild
9)Science Mom: She posts new lessons and science demonstrations daily since schools have closed.
10) The Kid Should See This: Love this website. There are thousands of videos on a variety of topics, but the link below is specific to science.
11) National Geographic Education: 9/12 remote learning resources
13) BrainPOP: Great resources with ways to demonstrate learning like coding and making movies. Free membership during school closures.
14) Coursera partnership with American Museum of Natural History: From my understanding kids and/or educators can take up to three free classes. This link will bring you to science options.
15) Citizen Science Projects: If your students are still able to go for walks outside, citizen science projects could be a good option. There are many that could be simply be done in a backyard or courtyard. Students can also design and start their own citizen science projects on some of the websites listed below. Here are some of my favorite project catalogs:
***Checkout this post that I did a while back with more citizen science options.
16) Mel Science: She has an Instagram handle, @melscience, where you can find videos of chemistry experiments. The link I've provided below goes to her library of chemistry experiments, many of which can be done at home.
Mel Science chemistry experiment video library
Mel Science is also offering free online science classes for kids of all ages as long as schools are closed. https://melscience.com/US-en/academy/
Free Distance Learning Websites for Teens
Stages Theater Company Free Virtual Theater Activities: Specific lessons for 9-12
Skills Share! Loaded with art and design tutorials by professionals
Creative Bug: Online art and craft classes. It’s free for now.
Kutovakika Lessons: Free photography tutorials
Google Arts and Culture
Carson Ellis Quarantine Art Club: This is pretty neat with a bunch of daily art prompts posted on the blog. You can also check out the Instagram handle for videos and sharing potential @carsonellis
The Metropolitan Opera: Nightly live stream performances for as long as coronavirus closure.
Stimola Lab: Kid and young adult authors live stream about their books.
Yoga with Adrienne: Some teen-specific sessions.
Do Yoga with Me: Hundreds of free meditation, yoga, and pilates classes.
@afrocontigbo on Instagram: She streams live dance sessions
@thevibe_dancefitness: streaming on Instagram
Scholastic Learn at Home: Lots of great free resources, lessons, magazine articles, etc. https://classroommagazines.scholastic.com/support/learnathome/grades-6-12.html
Wonderopolis: Cool inquiry site. Questions asked and answered by kids.
New York Times: The Times is offering free access to high schools during this time.
Open Culture keeps a massive database of free online courses provided by University instructors from “Film” to “Intro to Bio” to “Design”. The options are endless. This would be great for kids that would otherwise qualify for PSEO.
I'm several posts into my student-directed learning series now, and I'm finding that I may never reach an end. There is so much to say about it. Generally speaking, when learning activities are truly student-directed, classrooms are transformed as are students. Student-directed learning, in short, gives students choice, voice, and autonomy. This approach to learning provides students with opportunities to develop important 21st-century skills, grow in knowledge, and develop the tools for lifelong learning. These learning experiences can also be done just about anywhere: trapped at home on a rainy day, out in the backyard or school yard, on the road, or traveling around the world. The options are limitless because the experiences are designed and led by the students themselves.
The three learning tools of focus on this post do not necessarily have to be student-directed. They can all fall under teacher-directed if the teacher is making most of the decisions and directing the experiences. Guiding is much different than directing (check out my post to see what teachers do in a student-directed learning environment.) I chose the three learning activities that I did, not because they have to be student-directed in order to work, but because they have the framework in place to make student-directed learning possible and easy to implement. The following activities are great ways to start if you are looking to transform your classroom (and students) by way of student-directed learning.
I have tool kits for all of my go-to self-directed learning experiences including project-based learning, problem-based learning, inquiry-based learning, maker projects, and community action projects (PBL + service learning). I have compiled several of these into a bundle, or they can be found independently at my TPT store. Each tool kit provides all of the materials to help guide students through student-led learning experiences, and helps parents and educators facilitate them. Click on the photo below to get to the resource.
3 Transformational Student-Directed Learning Tools
1. Project-Based Learning (PBL):
I have written a lot of posts about project-based learning because it has been my dominant teaching tool for the past 11 years. Project-based learning is when students investigate a topic or driving question, create an end product to demonstrate learning, and present the final product. What distinguishes project-based learning from other pedagogies or projects in general is that the community plays a large role in the research process, end products must be innovative, and presentations must be authentic, meaning the information gathered or the product itself should meet and impact a relevant audience. Self and peer-assessment is also important. For details on how to start student-directed project-based learning and for PBL examples, refer back to some of my other posts on PBL.
So then how do you make PBL student-directed? Give students choice in as many ways as you can. Students can choose their own topic and learning objectives if you have the flexibility to allow that. If you are restricted to teaching specific topics, then choose the topic and allow student choice in other aspects of the project process. Students can choose how they will gather information, which community experts they will use and how they will utilize their expertise. Students can choose how they will demonstrate learning such as creating a comic or building a website. Students can and should choose their authentic audience. Students can even choose their own grading criteria by writing their own rubric or designing their own formative assessment.
Teacher-directed project-based learning would mean you would be doing all of that work for your students. Not only is that a lot on you, but learners are then robbed of the opportunity to develop those important skills themselves such as networking, communication, and collaboration.
Most of my TpT store is filled with various project-based learning resources. Many of my PBL resources start with a specific topic but give students choice in every other way. I also have a project-based learning toolkit that provides all of the guiding materials necessary for student-directed PBL that can be personalized to any topic.
The photo on the left is one part of the end product of a large and ongoing student business project. The picture is of skate decks for his skateboard company, all designs done by students. The photo on the right is of a student taking photos as a way of demonstrating learning. Photography was a passion of his, so taking photos to document his project was his choice.
2. Problem-Based Learning (PrBL):
I love problem-based learning for so many reasons, but one is the creative solutions that students come up with. Kids come into this activity with a fresh lens! Problem-based learning is when students examine real-world problems. They investigate the problem, research existing solutions, develop novel solutions, and propose a comprehensive plan to mitigate or eliminate the problem completely.
Again, problem-based learning has the bones to be student-directed as long as students direct the experience through a series of choices. I often introduce a problem and then have students choose how they will examine the issue, who they will talk to, resources they will utilize, collaborators, etc. They can also choose how they propose their plan.
True student-directed problem-based learning would be allowing students to choose the real-world problem they want to investigate and solve. This route is so interesting because even the act of choosing their own problem to investigate requires certain skills such as making observations about the world around them or recognizing when there is a problem at all. Students will get better at these skills the more opportunities they have to build on them.
I just started a problem-based learning product line on my TpT site. I have a problem-based learning toolkit that provides the framework and guiding materials to do student-directed problem-based learning from start to finish.
I do a lot of problem-based learning activities on environmental science because I am a science teacher. I give them a water pollution problem about fertilizers (available in my store), and organized a field trip to a nearby organic farm to talk with the farmer about how she grows crops sustainably.
3. Inquiry-Based Learning:
I use student-directed inquiry-based learning quite often because I am a science teacher. It's very fitting for science concepts, as one method of investigation is experimentation. Inquiry-based learning, however, is multidisciplinary. It can be used in any learning environment, for any subject, and any unit (if that's what you're looking for.) Inquiry is simply asking a question and investigating it through whatever means available and effective.
Again, inquiry-based learning is not defined by giving students choice. It falls on a spectrum, as I said in my last post. Feel free to go back one week to see my post on student-directed inquiry-based learning for details on how to guide inquiry activities. If the teacher asks the question, designs the investigation, and directs everything in between, then it is teacher-directed inquiry. Open inquiry is the opposite end of the spectrum where students observe the world around them, ask their own questions, and direct their own investigations. Guided inquiry lies somewhere in the middle of these two extremes.
I have a few scientific open inquiry activities in my TpT store. I also have an inquiry-based learning toolkit with the guiding materials needed for student-directed open inquiry.
Of course there are other activities that can be student-directed, but these specific approaches to learning have worked well for me. Project-based learning, in my opinion, is the best place to start.
I would love to hear about any student-directed learning activities that you do with your students, or how your PBL, PrBL, and inquiry-based learning activities are working out for your students.
There is a lot of talk about home learning right now (coronavirus school closures), and not the fun homeschooling where you get to hit up all of the museums when the rest of the kids are in school. We currently find ourselves in the situation where schools are closing around the country - around the world - because of COVID-19. Parents aren't sure how to keep busy or support their kids during this time. Classroom teachers are being asked to switch their curriculum to an online format overnight. It's not ideal, but as far as learning goes, you still have options.
If you're going stir-crazy, cooped up in your home with one or more wiley kids staring at their computers all day, this is a great post to reference. Below I've listed all of the blog posts I've written that are relevant or offer ideas for hands-on learning activities that can be done indoors, at home, on a cold/rainy day or when a pandemic hits, without fancy equipment or tech programs or the need to sit at a computer ALL DAY. You can also scroll to the bottom of the page for links experiential learning resources that can be done from home.
If you're unsure of how to facilitate experiential learning, check out some of my posts on student-directed learning for tips and tricks. Once you get comfortable letting go and giving your child voice and choice in their learning, it's a cinch for you. Good luck! Please reach out if you have any questions.
Learning from Podcasts:
This post is all about great podcasts for teens that are educational in themselves or could lead to some really cool learning experiences These DO NOT need to be done in a classroom. They do not depend on the cooperation of a group. Simply have your teens listen any number of the podcasts recommended here and have them turn it into a PBL project. You can find a lot of posts on project-based learning here, and check out my PBL resources at Experiential Learning Depot on TpT.
Student-Planned Hypothetical Trip:
My students plan travel experiences for personal PBL projects all of the time. Although my school has a travel program, few of the planned trips rarely came to fruition. But my students love to plan them anyway, even if they are hypothetical. Almost all of trip planning happens online. On top of that, there is so much to be learned from planning a trip such as geography, budgeting, inquiry skills, collaboration, global awareness, and more. I have many free travel resources in my TpT store, all of which require no more than a computer and internet.
Ways to Use Google Maps in Project-Based Learning:
Google Maps has so much to offer as far as it's capacity for learning experiences. At first sight it seems that it can only be used to direct someone from point A to point B. But it can also be used to tell a story, to tell history, to map out a hypothetical travel experience, to put together a hometown tour, and more. And all of this can be done from a computer from home. Head to this blog post for more ideas on how to use Google Maps as an online learning tool.
100 Final Product Ideas to Demonstrate Learning:
This large list of ways to demonstrate learning comes in handy for project-based learning. If a student is researching COVID-19, for example, a final product is what they would create to demonstrate what they have learned about that topic, such as creating an animation on virus transmission. Poster boards can get a bit tired. Most of the final products ideas listed on this post require little but the internet or basic office/school supplies. Print out this list and prop it up in a place where your child can see it. As they design projects, they can refer to this list, and add some new final product ideas to it as it as they come up!
So much learning happens in the kitchen! Math, science, social/emotional learning, inquiry skills, and more! Cooking is a great way for kids to use their hands, connect with you and/or their siblings, learn a lot, build skills, and have a good time. It's also integrative and is a great way to differentiate learning based on skill level, age, interests and more. Check out these awesome kitchen inquiry ideas.
Snow Day/ Rainy Day STEM Activities:
All of the STEM ideas in this post can be done inside with very few resources. It's amazing what you can do with some cardboard. Start collecting all of those Amazon boxes and toilet paper rolls that you've been stocking up on!
Experiential Learning on the Cheap:
One concern about taking learning home is the lack of resources. You may think your home is not set up for "schooling". It doesn't need to be. This post provides a few ways to implement experiential learning activities without spending a dime. Some of the suggestions will not apply here, but many of them will. Pick through what will work for you and your current situation. At the end of the day, all you need is the internet. You don't need a smart board, cutsie posters with educational quotes, a 3D printer, or even a regular printer! Experiential learning involves using the community as a resource. Students can do this through email, facetime, conference calling, and phone calls. Experiential learning calls for innovation, authenticity, self-direction, and reflection. All of that can be accomplished without leaving home.
Take Learning Outdoors:
These are trying times for everyone, especially when it comes to mental health. We are social people, so to "social distance" is tough for many. It is for my son, anyway. Hopefully we can get through it soon rather than later! In the meantime, it's important to help our children get through the emotional and mental challenge of social isolation. I would love nothing more than to take learning out into the community. And although you don't want to be taking your kids to the community pool or the zoo where they could lick the hand rails right now, do take them outside! Go for walks in the woods, take in the sunshine and fresh air, get lost, be wild. Check out this post to learn how your kids can not only get outdoors, but learn in the process.
Good luck to you all, and stay safe!
High School Experiential Learning Resources for Distance Learning:
Free Resources - Most of these resources can be used at home.
Inquiry Bingo - This is a game that helps learners develop inquiry skills using only a computer.
Current Events - Check out my worksheets to go along with the Vice News series. Each episode can be found on Youtube and the resource includes worksheets to go with those episodes and extension activity ideas.
Project-Based Learning - You'll find a variety of PBL projects, tool kits, and free guiding resources at Experiential Learning Depot. Students may have to get creative with their authentic presentations by sharing online.
How Does Climate Work? *Bundle* - This climate science resource includes maker projects, inquiry stations, an inquiry lab and project-based learning that only requires a few basic household items.
Problem-Based Learning - PrBL is my absolute favorite learning experience to assign to students. It involves so many great skills such as problem-solving, inquiry and critical thinking. Students identify local or global issues and put together a comprehensive solution plan that tackles the issue from all angles.
Student-Directed Tool Kits - This bundle includes all of the guiding materials that you would need to implement student-led maker projects, inquiry-based learning, project-based learning, and problem-based learning experiences. Students identify driving questions, research topics, or problems that need to be solved and design and lead a learning activity.
Project-Based Distance Learning for High School Students
I have been an experiential educator for almost twelve years. My philosophy of education revolves around authentic learning experiences that are personalized, interest-based, student-designed, and self-directed. I am an advocate for travel and collaborative community learning experiences. This means that learning often takes place beyond the walls of the classroom.
Turns out that student-led project-based learning is an awesome way to hit all of these points within the walls of a traditional learning environment, AND beyond them. When my students travel with school or personally, I assign self-directed PBL projects to them while they're away. When I pull my own children from school to travel, they also do some project-based learning. Students may have personal obstacles that keep them home for an extended period. My son, for example, recently broke his leg and was unable to go to school for almost a week. My students and children even do PBL projects over summer break to catch up on credits or simply because the process itselves inspires them to learn.
Now we find ourselves neck deep in a pandemic. Amidst concerns about COVID-19, there is talk of schools closing down. Yours may have already closed, and now you are unexpectedly scrambling to prepare distance learning options for your high school students. Self-directed project-based learning is a great way to go because you can literally cover any subject. It integrates subjects by nature. PBL is what we assign to students to do at home if our school is forced to close in response to coronavirus. PBL promotes independent, productive learning, especially when students have access to the right guiding materials. If you've ever questioned or wondered about PBL, or considered implementing it, now is a good time. Give students the tools to successfully work through content in a fun, exciting, interesting, interest-led and independent way, while they are with you and when they cannot be.
What Students Will Need:
Distance PBL Implementation:
I understand that this is a little doomsday-ish of a post. More often than not we do not find ourselves in this pandemic situation, thankfully. In my 37 years on this earth, this is the first time schools have closed, conferences have cancelled, professional sports leagues have ended seasons early, because of a virus. I would venture to guess that it won't be the last time, but that it will be just as rare in the second half of my life as it was in the first. Hopefully we all learn something from this experience.
There are many reasons aside from home-quarantining that you would use project-based distance learning, and the biggest is traveling. Project-based learning is such an amazing tool to enhance learning on any travel experience, educational in purpose and personal. However, distance learning as it relates to travel is a little different than home/remote PBL. Travelers should absolutely organize authentic learning experiences, work face-to-face with community experts, and share their final product with a relevant, authentic audience either while traveling or upon their return.
Good luck to everyone, and stay safe out there!
Several years ago I showed a Vice News episode to my advisory/PBL students about the Syrian refugee crisis. A student of mine approached me after the activity to express her interest in this topic. The conflict in Syria was something she knew little about, and she wanted to know more. She decided to do a project on Syria. The driving question for her project, which she chose, would be how the conflict in Syria began. She would demonstrate learning by organizing the series of events that led to the conflict into a digital timeline. Again, her choice. With my guidance the student wrote project goals and created her own project rubric.
My student dove deep into research and quickly came to the conclusion that she wanted to do something to help or contribute in addition to her original timeline project. She organized a holiday pie fundraiser in the community. She turned the fundraiser into a group effort by recruiting students from our advisory. They made and distributed marketing materials, made order forms, and made their own "take-and-bake" apple pies to sell. The student still completed her original project and used her timeline as a marketing strategy to sell pies. She shared her timeline to various social media pages along with an ad for her pie fundraiser. The visual helped connect potential pie buyers with the cause.
What is Student-Directed Learning?
This project is the epitome of a student-directed learning experience. This student called all the shots from the beginning to the end. I provided guidance but the learning experience as a whole was entirely directed by the student. Student-directed learning by definition involves student choice at every step.
Without student choice you do not have student-directed learning.
1. Students choose what they want to learn.
2. Students write their learning goals and determine their own learning objectives.
3. Students choose how they will gather information.
4. Students partner up with community members of their choosing for expertise and collaboration.
5. Students choose how they will demonstrate learning.
6. Students determine an authentic audience and choose a method of reaching that audience.
7. Students establish a method of assessment and criteria for evaluation.
Ways to implement student-directed learning:
Student-directed activities: some teachers may throw in a student-directed activity once in a while into an otherwise teacher-centered curriculum.
Student-directed curriculum with teacher-directed objectives: other teachers will design a learning environment that is dominantly student-directed but will themselves lay down a framework around specific objectives. I see this as the most common form of student-directed learning as teachers have the unfortunate task of meeting standards. Imagine how wonderful teaching would be if students didn't have standards. Students could learn about whatever they want to learn whenever they want to learn it. Genius hour for more than an hour! Anyway, this is the type of student-directed teaching you'd likely see going on in my class at any given time.
Authentic student-directed learning: the final way of operating a student-directed learning environment is to give students full control of their learning from start to finish. Teachers do not place any parameters on the learning experience. The project conducted by my student on Syria is an example of authentic student-directed learning. Some would say it is not student-directed learning at all if every step above isn't directed by the student. I would tend to agree, but understand that it is much easier to implement in theory than in reality. There are obstacles to consider such as state standards, district philosophy and mission, class sizes, class structure, and district/staff/parent/community support.
I worked in a very progressive school for most of my teaching career. I didn't face many of the obstacles just mentioned, yet I still found myself choosing learning objectives for my students here and there. I did this for a couple of reasons. One was because progressive or not, we still needed to follow the same state standards as everyone else. I also learned that students need input. They need "sparks" as Wayne Jennings would say. The Vice News episode in the project example above was such a "spark" for this student. It was the introduction of a topic that sparked interest and questions. It is okay to plant the seed even in a student-directed learning environment. I showed a Vice episode to my advisory every single Monday morning to start off the week. I did this because they loved it. Every time I showed an episode of Vice at least one student turned the episode topic into a student-directed PBL project. I have Vice News episode guides and student-centered extension activities in my TpT store. This is a bundle I used with my students, the episode about Syria included in the "War and Peace" bundle - Vice News Series Bundle.
Benefits of student-directed learning:
The student mentioned in the Syria example not only learned the details of an important and current global issue, but gained numerous critical 21st-century competencies as well by learning how to learn. When students direct their own learning they take ownership. They are invested in the process and the outcome. An intrinsic motivation to learn emerges. The motivation for some, a passion for learning, has been buried deeply in students that have spent much of their academic careers in a teacher-centered learning environment. Allowing students choice, autonomy, room to fail, and opportunities to construct knowledge through experience sets the stage for lifelong learning. The alternative is a teacher-directed environment where information is given, answers are right or wrong, learning is passive, 21st-century skills are glossed over, facts are memorized and forgotten weeks later. There is little meaning or relevance, therefore, learning is shallow.
I'm elated to say that I don't see a lot of teachers running classrooms anymore that are completely teacher-centered. There are so many amazing student-centered learning activities that I see educators implementing such as STEM, maker education, inquiry, experiential learning, project-based learning, problem-based learning. There are so many cool ideas out there. You can teach in a traditional environment and still implement student-directed teaching activities. Start small. If your curriculum is largely teacher-directed right now, consider adding a few student-directed learning activities in here and there. See how they go. If that goes well do more until your entire curriculum is student-directed! You won't regret it.
Student-directed learning resources:
A great student-directed learning activity to start with is project-based learning. There are so many amazing PBL resources out there. My TpT store, Experiential Learning Depot is dominated by PBL projects right now. Feel free to check those out. I have a project-based learning bundle that includes a manual on how to get started with project-based learning in your classroom. This product is designed to move your classroom from teacher-directed to student-directed. If you are a beginner to project-based teaching or student-directed learning this may be a good resource for you. You can also go back to any number of my previous blog posts on project-based learning. Start here with "What is Project-Based Learning, Anyway?" I also like the Buck Institute. They work hard at spreading PBL love and have great tips and resources for using project-based learning in a more traditional learning environment.
Coming up in the student-directed learning series:
Stay-tuned for more from my student-directed learning series. Expect to see some future blog posts on the following, among others.
1. What does a student-directed learning environment look like?
2. What does the teacher do in a student-directed learning environment?
3. Student-directed assessments. I'm really excited about this one. I submitted an article to be to the Reformer, an education magazine through ASCD. I was accepted from a pool of over 500 submissions! My article on student-generated rubrics will be published in February. I will add a condensed version of it here.
4. Student-directed parent/teacher conferences.
5. List of student-directed learning activities.
6. What teachers are doing in their student-directed classrooms.
If you have questions about student-directed learning or would like me to write a blog post on a specific aspect of student-directed learning that I haven't mentioned, please reach out.
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I recently posted part 1 of my student-directed learning series, which broke down the meaning of student-directed learning: What is Student Directed Learning Anyway? Now that you know what student-directed learning means, what do you do with that? What does a student-directed learning environment even look like? Where should you start?
Whatever learning space you are working with, it must nurture student choice. That's the bottom line. If at this point you know nothing about student-directed learning, just know that student choice is mandatory. Students direct their learning through a series of choices from learning objectives to designing their own assessments. The role of the teacher changes to facilitator.
It may be tricky to even imagine what that might look like. What does the "facilitator" do? Sounds like the kids are teaching themselves. In some respects they are, and I'd argue that that's essential in raising lifelong learners. My next post will be on the role of the teacher in a student-directed learning environment. For now, I'm going to share with you the first and most important steps to take to shift from a teacher-directed classroom to a student-directed classroom.
4 Steps to a Student-Directed Learning Environment
1. Modify Your Learning Space to Allow for Student-Choice:
Shifting the layout of your room can make a dramatic impact on the success of student-directed learning in your classroom. The foundation of student-directed learning is choice, so a variety of micro-spaces should be available for students to utilize. The room should accommodate for creating, group cooperation and collaboration, technology, movement, a quiet and peaceful area for reading or independent work. Student-directed learning means that students use their unique learning styles, skills, and interests to guide their educational journey. At any given time students may be working on something different than their peers. It would make little sense to have a room with 30 forward facing desks in that case. That layout screams lecture. Student-directed learning is the opposite of lecture-based instruction.
My Learning Space:
- A large round table in the center of my room for whole-group collaboration. This is a great space to gather for class discussion, meetings, group projects, and presentations.
- Workstations line the perimeter of my classroom. My workstations are desks, each with a desktop computer. We recently started transitioning away from desktop computers and are moving toward Chromebooks for each student. These workstations are great for independent projects and cooperative learning.
- Next door is a workshop or makerspace. That room is free for students to use during independent work time. There is usually a teacher in that room to assist and I can also see into the workshop from my classroom. A creative workspace is essential.
- I have a quiet corner set aside for those that want to work quietly and independently. It has a large shelf filled with books, art materials, a large cozy chair, and pillows. It's a good space for reading and relaxing. Yes. I let my high-schoolers rest when they
Student-Directed Learning Design Projects:
Many of the design aspects of my classroom were achieved through student-directed projects. A small group of students painted each panel of my ceiling. Another student designed and painted my large group table. Students built their own desks. Our reading corner was designed by a student using Google Sketchup. The small square table was an old piece of literal garbage that a student stripped and refinished. If this is something that interests you, check out my PBL Maker Challenge project - Upcycled Lounge Area.
2. Move Beyond the Walls of the Classroom:
Utilize the Community to Your Advantage:
Some of the most profound learning experiences happen outside of the classroom. A large chunk of our student learning activities take place outside of the room whether that be on a school trip across the globe, in the park near our school, or even right outside my classroom door in the commons area. For students to be successful at directing their own learning experiences they need input that is relevant to the real-world. Sparks incite interest and provide exposure to new ideas. Community collaboration, locally or globally, is essential. Using the world as the classroom brings student-directed learning to another level. If you can't leave your classroom, bring the community to you.
Using the World as the Classroom:
In the Community:
- Field trips (history centers, science labs, local businesses, community events, etc.
- School travel
- Mentorship program
- Service learning projects
- Community experts (independent PBL projects, maker projects, assessment panel, speakers)
On School Grounds:
- Live webinars with global experts
- Video conference with community experts
- School yard activities
- Bring experts to you - students can and should arrange for many these meetings in a student-directed learning environment, especially when the expert is unique to one student's project. . You guide and offer suggestions when needed. You could also invite guests from the community that offer exposure to a new topic or are relevant to an overarching theme or standard.
- Get creative with your space - ex: using the commons area for physics experiments.
- Attempt to implement an open-door policy - I know this sounds radical, but what I mean by this is allowing students access to makerspaces, tech rooms, the library, a music room, a quiet conference room. The logistics of this will depend on your situation. Do some brainstorming and find a system that works.
3. Organize Student-Directed Learning Activities:
Implementing student-directed learning activities seems pretty obvious, but what is a student-directed learning activity? Again, student-directed learning involves choice, so the activity needs to provide students with flexibility and the freedom to lead the experience. Project-based learning is a great way to do that. PBL doesn't have to be student-directed, however, which I really just recently discovered.
As a quick reminder, project-based learning is the active exploration of a particular topic where students are fully engaged with the community. Students demonstrate learning with an innovative final product, and share their outcome with a public, authentic audience. For more on PBL see previous posts - What is Project-Based Learning Anyway? and Key Components of Project-Based Learning. All of that in theory could be arranged by the instructor with little to no choice or input from students. However, as a project-based learning teacher who also taught at an experiential high school for 9 years, I can tell you that project-based learning is the perfect canvas for student-directed learning. It's just a matter of proper execution. I have a PBL bundle in my store that gradually transitions students (and teachers) from a teacher-directed classroom to a student-directed classroom using project-based learning. If you're unsure how to make this transition, this may be a great place to start - Project-Based Learning Bundle: 20 Integrative Projects.
Other Activities with Student-Directed Learning Potential:
- Passion Projects
- Genius Hour (although I would argue you do this all of the time instead of for an hour!)
- Learning committees or clubs run by students
- Maker projects
Again, any activity has promise to be student-directed, you just need to let students do the directing!
4. Shift Your Role:
Teacher's Role in Teacher-Directed Learning Environment:
Obviously the activity going on in your classroom at any given time would look very different in a student-directed learning environment than a teacher-centered one. Imagine observing a teacher-directed classroom. What would that look like? You'd likely find students sitting in their desks with pen in hand jotting down notes while the teacher lectures from the front of the room. The teacher may walk the room a bit, reminding students with eye-contact and body language to pay-attention. You may walk into the classroom one day to find students working together on a hands-on activity, but upon closer inspection discover that they are following a prescribed recipe.
Teacher's Role in a Student-Directed Learning Environment:
Now imagine walking into a student-directed classroom. There isn't a typical "scene". There is always activity, but students are pouring into every corner of the room engaged in a different enterprise than their neighbor. One student might be working in the makerspace on their final product. There might be a pair of students in another corner of the room deeply absorbed in a brainstorming session. Another student may be at their desk engrossed in a phone interview with a community expert. And let's be honest. There will of course be the kid who is wandering around looking for someone to banter with, or the kid sleeping in the reading chair. Even student-directed learning classrooms have their challenges. But that's for another day.
Now, where is the teacher in all of this? The role of the teacher changes to facilitator. The teacher is guiding and assisting. You may find the teacher sitting with the pair of students brainstorming, asking questions that challenge their thinking. You may find the teacher in discussion with the student who will be giving the interview. The teacher may be proofing the interview questions or offering suggestions before giving the student the go ahead to make the call. The teacher may be redirecting the wanderer. The teacher works the room offering assistance and inspiration.
What Role do you Play?
My guess is that most of us are probably trying to find a balance between the two roles, especially if you're a high school teacher. There are limitations, rules, time constraints, the pressures of testing. Sometimes whole group instruction is necessary. Full disclosure: sometimes I lecture. I keep it as brief as possible and it's always in connection with student-directed projects. If you find yourself lecturing most of the time, I get it. I have been this teacher. What I do know though, is that if you want your students to be truly engaged, to practice deeper thinking, to have a passion for learning, the internal motivation to thrive and improve, then a great start is shifting your role to allow for more student-directed learning.
How to Start the Shift:
Start small. You don't need to flip your classroom upside-down in one day. If you decide to start doing student-directed project-based learning for example, start by taking one concept that you'd typically teach through lecture, such as climate drivers, and replace it with a PBL project. Once you're comfortable with that, try another one, until you've replaced lecture-based instruction (for the most part.) My PBL bundle and manual that I mentioned above starts with more teacher-centered projects and gradually moves to projects that are entirely student-directed. Play around with your options and ultimately do what feels right and is working well for your students.
I am a huge advocate (clearly) for student-directed learning. I love to talk about it. If you have any questions, need advice, or even want to challenge me, I invite it! Please reach out. Stay-tuned for more from my student-directed learning series.
Follow Experiential Learning Depot on Pinterest, Instagram, and Facebook for more on experiential education. Check out my student-directed curriculum in my TpT store, Experiential Learning Depot.
This post is part of a series on student-directed learning. If you are unsure of what student-directed learning is or what a student-directed learning environment looks like, go back and peruse previous posts. In short, student-directed learning gives students choice throughout the learning experience, and the learning environment should accommodate those choices.
Imagine you walk into a classroom. You look around and see students spread out around the room. Some students are quietly lounging in bean bag chairs, reading or writing. In the center of the room you see a small group of students chatting around a large table. You find students sitting at desks, working away on computers. One of the students is creating an animation and another student is writing an email. You scan the room and see a couple of students watching a live webinar streaming from Facebook.
This is my classroom. This is what my student-directed learning environment looks like for much of the day (not all of it). Our students lead their education through student-directed project-based learning. For details on student-directed PBL, go back to this post. Each student in the example above is working on some component of a student-directed project. One student decides he wants to gather information for his project by reading books on the topic. The small group of students chatting around the table is brainstorming how best to reach their authentic audience. Another student is creating an animation as her final product to demonstrate learning. The student writing emails is connecting with community experts to utilize for his project. The small group of students watching the live webinar is using this modern technology to learn about their project topic.
Each student is learning in their own way, at their own pace. They may be driven by the same general learning objective that you set for them, such as a standard that needs to be met (or not), but they meet those learning objectives by making a series of personal decisions based on their passions and needs.
The question then is where is the teacher in all of this? If the teacher isn't giving information through direct instruction or providing a structured lesson plan or activity, then what is the teacher even doing there? Teachers wear A LOT of hats. ALL educators know this and experience this, regardless of pedagogy or philosophy. Student-directed teachers still manage the classroom, provide resources, scaffold, organize learning activities, provide input, and even teach students how to direct their own learning. What changes in a student-directed learning environment is your role. You are far from obsolete. You are a facilitator of learning. You guide and support, you challenge, you give feedback.
What does the teacher do in student-directed learning environment?
1. Help students learn how to direct their own learning -
A lot of students have spent the bulk of their education being given information through direct instruction. Teachers that want to transition to a more student-directed learning environment are going to have to undo the mindset that student's have developed over the years that they're going to be given the "correct answers." Student-directed learning requires critical thinking, problem-solving, and failing at times! Students may be uncomfortable with that at first. I have many resources in my Experiential Learning Depot store that guide teachers and students through this transition by way of project-based learning, one of which is a PBL bundle and manual.
2. Get to know your students -
In order to serve your students effectively in a student-directed learning environment, you'll need to get to know who they are, what they're interested in, their learning styles, their passions and more. It is very personalized. Knowing your students on this level will be critical to when you're helping them design projects or work through learning activities. The animation example that I used above was an actual project that one of my students did. She turned a subject that she found boring, neurotransmission, and made it more exciting and engaging by creating an animation that demonstrated this concept. I knew she was a creator and helped her design her project around that passion. Relationship building is huge and sometimes you have to work at it.
3. Guide students through the process of developing learning experiences that are challenging, authentic, and innovative -
Just because students make choices in student-directed learning doesn't mean they're always going to be great decisions! They need your guidance, expertise, connections, and advice. If you know your students, you will know if they're not challenging themselves, if their project design doesn't align with their goals, if they could expand their authentic audience, or if their project plan just doesn't match up with their learning objectives.
My students design their projects using a project proposal. I walk the room while they hash out their project plans, check their proposals, offer suggestions, and sign off on them. I have that blank PBL project proposal and other helpful student-directed PBL templates in my store in a bundle called "PBL Toolkit".
The picture above shows one of my students learning about history through photography. Getting to know this student I discovered she was interested in photography. She needed history credit so she decided to stage major events in history, take and edit photos, and write a description of the events. She eventually developed an entire gallery of recreated historical events. She CHOSE her final product, a way of demonstrating learning that was of interest to her. I guided her through this process. I was so impressed by her results that I created a guided PBL project around this idea and it's available in my store - History Through Artistic Expression.
4. Help students create and manage personal learning plans -
A personal learning plan is a great tool for student-directed learning. It is a plan that includes personal goals, interests, learning styles, project ideas, deadlines, etc. It can really include whatever you feel helps guide students. It's helpful to pull that plan out when students are designing projects or learning experiences. My job as facilitator is to help them write this plan and modify it as they learn and grow. My personal learning plan template is also included in my PBL Toolkit.
5. Assist students with finding resources -
I think my biggest job as a facilitator is to help students find accurate and relevant information, connect with community experts, gather materials, and recognize learning opportunities. Student-directed learning really teaches kids how to be resourceful, especially if you do project-based learning. If you don't know what I mean by that, go back to my previous post on the principles of pbl. I taught a biotechnology seminar a while ago. One of my students was really interested in algae as a biofuel. I connected him with the researchers at the algae lab of the U of M, and my student took it from there. I modeled how to find an authentic learning experience relevant to his interests and learning objectives, he learned from that, and eventually was able to find these opportunities for himself.
At the time when the Syrian refugee crisis reached its peak, a group of my students chose to raise money by having a holiday pie fundraiser. This was their plan for their student-directed community action project that I assigned. Also in my store. I helped them locate resources, in this case, ingredients for pies, by connecting with and arranging deals with local orchards.
6. Provide input and feedback -
Giving students consistent feedback is not only critical for growth and improvement, but students need it, desire it, and ask for it. Because they're not getting immediate and concrete feedback, such as a red check mark over an incorrect answer to a worksheet, they can feel a little lost at times. It is your job as the facilitator to observe their learning process, give them pointers, ask that they go back to the drawing board, etc. I have my students complete self-assessments periodically throughout the learning experience. In most cases with my students it's a rubric for project-based learning. I then go over the assessment with the student one-on-one. Formative assessments or quick end of the day reflections are great also, and are a little more efficient. Find a system that works for you.
7. Organize events that showcase student work to the community-
There are so many interesting and creative ways to present final products to an authentic audience. One great default presentation option for students is to put final products on display at an organized event such as an exhibition night. I have a project in my store that is all about heritage. Every year my students complete this project and then we host a multicultural night for friends, family, and community members. Part of my job as a facilitator in a student-directed learning environment is to plan these events. I do, and I love it!
8. Organize learning activities and sparks -
Not all time in my school learning environment is spent working independently on projects. We have group discussions, we do group projects, we go on field trips, do service learning, travel, watch the news together, invite speakers, host events, and do team building activities. I even do direct-instruction at times. I'm not above that. I just limit it as much as possible. Many of these learning activities are connected to student-projects in some way, but some of them aren't. Some of them are simply done to inform students, start dialog about an important issue or concept, or ignite a spark in a student or two. A huge part of my job is to find, plan, and coordinate these learning opportunities for students.
The photo all the way to the left is a speaker, Dr. Fisch, a Holocaust survivor and artist. A coworker of mine arranged for him to come in to speak to the school. The photo in the middle is a field trip to the Wildlife Science Center. I brought students there to spark interest and gather information for their endangered species projects (look for this free resource in my store). The photo on the far right is of a student at a class team building event that I arranged.
9. Provide students with the tools to be successful student-directed learners -
Student-directed learning does not have to be chaotic. You can and should give structure. It is your job as their instructor to provide the tools they need to direct their own learning. Project-proposals, parameters and deadlines, guidelines for project reflections, graphic organizers, formative assessments, etc. are all great examples of devices that will help your students transition to great student-directed learners. They will need a system, at least right away. In time the hope is that they can become less dependent on you, as throughout the year they will be developing the skills to work more independently.
10. Everything else that comes with territory of being a teacher -
You wear a lot of hats regardless of teaching style. The same goes for teachers in student-directed learning environments. You will always have a student or two that are distracting other students. You will have students that walk in the door with baggage or trauma. You need to manage tardies and absences, and grade and evaluate student work. The list goes on. With student-directed learning, however, some behavioral issues are reduced because students have choice and autonomy. Their learning experiences are based on interest and real-life.
That was long! Thanks for hearing me out. Student-directed learning is powerful and it's worth considering if you don't already use this approach. If you do student-directed learning in your classroom or learning environment, please share about your experience!
Follow Experiential Learning Depot on Pinterest, Instagram, and Facebook for more on experiential education, and check out my TpT store for experiential learning resources.
To provide innovative educational resources for educators, parents, and students, that go beyond lecture and worksheets.
Sara Segar, experiential life-science educator and advisor, curriculum writer, and mother of two.